Exhibition of the Czech Reformation in the European context

C Huss and Hussites (1st half of 15th century)

C 1 Origin of the Czech Reformation

1. John Wycliff – "the Morning Star of the Reformation"
– Carolinum – Prague University, where most of masters assumed Wycliff’s doctrines

Jan Viklef a Karolinum

2. Bethlehem Chapel – first building established exclusively for preaching of the God’s word in Prague

Betlémská kaple

3. John Huss preaches in the Bethlehem Chapel
– Huss’ seal with the Liberal Arts’ Patroness St Catherine
– Huss’ signature

Mistr Jan Hus káže v Betlémské kapli

4. Huss at the stake in 1415 – the oldest extant picture in the Martinice Bible ca. 1430

Mistr Jan Hus na hranici roku 1415

5. Master Hieronymus of Prague, Huss’ friend and attorney led to the stake in 1416

Mistr Jeroným Pražský

6. Protest letter of Bohemian and Moravian noblemen against M. John Huss’ burning to death

Protestní list proti upálení Mistra Jana Husa

C 2 Defence against Crusades

1. Throwing of the Hussites into pits in Kutná Hora in 1420

Metání husitů do šachet

2. Hussites’ manifesto from 1420 as the answer to calling for the crusade against the Czech Kingdom

Husitský manifest z roku 1420

3. Hussites’ hymn: Ktož jsú Boží bojovníci (Who are God’s Warriors)

Píseň husitů: Ktož jsú boží bojovníci

4. John Žižka of Trocnov leading the Hussites’ troops
– Žižka’s seal with the chalice

Jan Žižka z Trocnova a Žižkova pečeť s kalichem

5. Crusades against Bohemia since 1420 till 1431

Mapa křižáckých výprav do Čech 1420-1431

6. Czech lands since 1419 till 1437 – Towns’ Union of Prague (underlined with green) and Towns’ Union of Tabor, later also the Towns’ Union of the Orphans and Towns’ Union of Žatec (underlined with red)
– Žižka’s successor Prokop the Bald (the Great)
– The last letter by Prokop the Bald before the Battle of Lipany

České země v letech 1419-1437
Prokop Holý (Veliký) a poslední dopis před bitvou u Lipan

C 3 Program of Hussites

1. The Program of Hussites represents the so called Four Articles of Prague. It required unrestricted preaching of the God’s word, Eucharist "in both kinds" (both bread and wine for everybody according the original habit that had been cancelled just since the 4th Council of Lateran), the end of the secular rule of the Church and justice for everybody – the same punishment of crimes even for priests, who were taken out from the secular criminal authority

Týnský chrám na Staroměstském náměstí v Praze

2. John Huss’ successor in the Bethlehem Chapel, M. Jakoubek of Stříbro, served the Holy Communion in both kinds for the first time in the St Martin’s Church in the Wall.

Kostel u Martina ve zdi

3. The Holy Communion (Eucharist) in both kinds and its symbol – chalice – became common the most famous exhibition of the Czech Reformation.

Přijímání pod obojí

4. When violence had failed and the Council of Basle decided to treat with Hussites, in Cheb (Eger) both sides there agreed on the doctrine that Bible, the way of life of Jesus and those Church authorities, which correspond with both above mentioned demands, should conclude their dispute.


5. At the Council of Basle four important representatives of different Hussites’ streams defended the Four Articles of Prague.


6. Beyond the mainstream of the Hussites Peter of Chelčice thought over the elemental questions. He understood that the beginning of the mistaken Christian Church development was in the joining of the Church and secular power together in the 4th century. He also condemned the medieval dividing of the society into three classes: praying clergy, fighting noblemen and working folk.

Petr Chelčický