Exhibition of the Czech Reformation in the European context

B Development Context of the Czech Reformation

B 1 Trust in One God – the Roots (Israel)

1. Moses is receiving the Ten Commandments Tables from God on Mount Sinai – one artistic expression

Mojžíš přijímá Desatero

2. Mount Sinai (also called Horeb)

Hora Sinaj (Choréb)

3. The pilgrimage of Israelites to the Land of Promise (experimental reconstruction of their trail)

Rekonstrukce cesty Izraelců do země zaslíbené

4. Archaeological excavations in the locality of Megiddo, the fortified administrative centre of the king Solomon’s empire

Archeologické vykopávky v Megiddo

5. Qumran – a part of caves where the scrolls of the Old Testament manuscripts (Dead Sea Scrolls) were found


6. A sample of the texts of the scrolls from caves of Qumran

Svitek z kumránských jeskyň

B 2 Trust in One God – the New Branches (Christians)

1. Tabgha – a place where according to the tradition the disciples met resurrected Jesus Christ
– Resurrected Christ feeds his disciples – the image of the Eucharist

Tabgha, obraz Večeře Páně

2. Archaeological excavations in Capernaum, one centre of Jesus’ activity

Archeologické vykopávky v Kafarnaum

3. A fisherman’s boat from the 1st century AD, found in Lake of Gennesareth

Starý rybářský člun

4. The Gethsemane Garden with ancient olives, where Jesus was arrested

Getsemanská zahrada s prastarými olivovníky

5. Archaeological excavations of the former third greatest port of Mediterranean Sea Caesarea Maritima where the way of the non–Judaic Christianity begins
– First Christian Church congregations found in 1st century AD

Archeologické vykopávky přístavu Caesareje Přímořské

6. The oldest known fragment of the New Testament and the oldest complete New Testament manuscript – Codex of Sinai

Nejstarší zlomek Nového zákona psaný řecky na papyru a Sinajský kodex psaný řecky na pergamenu

B 3 Christian Organization Assumes the Secular Power – 4th Century

1. Roman Empire divided into Western and Eastern Roman Empires during Emperor Diocletian's reign in 3rd century.

Diokletianem rozdělená Římská říše

2. Roman catacombs – Christians gathered here as well

Římské katakomby

3. Emperor Constantine, founder of Constantinople, who issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD. It was the end of the Christian Church persecution, but also becomes the base of its connection with secular rule.

Císař Konstantin

4. Forum Romanum as a symbol of the disappeared antique Rome

Forum Romanum

5. Christian temple S. Maria sopra Minerva, built as many others on the foundations of pagan Goddess Minerva temple. In 16th century there were held preludes of horrible mass executions by the Inquisition – auto-da-fé („act of faith“).

Křesťanský chrám Santa Maria sopra Minerva

6. Pantheon – all pagan gods' temple has preserved because was adapted and used as Christian church.


B 4 Church Organization Led by the Pope Controls in the Name of God the Western and Central Europe – 1215

1. Charlemagne was in 800 AD crowned as the Emperor by Roman pope; this date should have been considered as the beginning of the so called Christian Europe.

Papež Karel Veliký

2. In the Carolingian Dynasty Epoch their empire spread out in the significant part of Western and Central Europe; on the south there had been established the Papal state.

Římská říše v době Karlovců

3. Pope Innocent III, who finished the development of the whole-rule Church institution. He proclaimed that he is smaller than God himself, but greater than all people.

Papež Inocenc III.

4. During the 4th Council of Lateran in Rome in 1215 the change of the Church into the institution had been completed. Medieval Church proclaimed itself as the mediator between God and human and claimed the authority to control the whole life of an individual as well as the whole society.

4. lateránský koncil v Římě

5. To keep the obedience and external unity the so called Holy Inquisition was established. It searched for "heretics", tortured them and executed them especially at the stakes. And protected itself by citations from the Bible.

Svatá inkvizice

6. The first victims of the whole-rule Church institution were the so called Cathars in Southern France. At the beginning of the 13th century whole areas were slaughtered by a crusade and the region was joined to the north of France.

Masakr katarů v jižní Francii

B 5 Heretic’s movements: People Striving for the Return to the Original Character of the Christian Church

1. Ritual text of Cathars (13th century)
– The beginning of John’s Gospel, Waldensian Bible of Carpentras (14th century)

Rituální text katarů a valdenská Bible

2. Waldensian Eucharist – Naumburg Dome in Thuringia in Germany (13th century)

Valdenská Večeře Páně

3. Waldensian candlestick with inscription: "light in darkness"
– Waldensians’ Conference (300th anniversary of the "Return of the Waldensians" in 1689); sign: "Be faithful till death."

Valdenský svícen a konference valdenských

4. The spread of the Waldensians in the Middle Age, schematic approximate marking; roman digits indicate the century of their occurrence in the region

Mapa rozšíření valdenských ve středověku

5. Jindřichův Hradec (Neuhaus) Castle, its lord led in 1340 the first crusade in the Central Europe against the Waldensians in the South-Eastern Bohemia

Hrad Jindřichův Hradec

6. Landštejn Castle at the borderlands of Bohemia, Moravia and Lower Austria. In its cellars and in the dungeon died the Waldensians.

Hrad Landštejn